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Thank you very much in advance! Nibmeister In The Uk? Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.
Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.
One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana.
Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.
The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.
The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.
London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.
Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.
Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.
They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.
Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.
Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.
It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain.
Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.
The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.
The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.
The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.
In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.
The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.
England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.
Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.
The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England  and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.
While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.
England is a leader in the chemical  and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.
Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.
The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.
England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.
The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.
It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.
It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.
Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.
With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK.
Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.
The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.
The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.
With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.
Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.
Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.
The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle  much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.
The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.
These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines.
There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.
The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.
The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.
It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people.
In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.
During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,  but English is the only language used for official business.
Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived,   and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.
Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century,  and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.
State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.
In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.
Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.
The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.
There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.
A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.
According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.
The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.
Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.
Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.
Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.
A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.
Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree.
The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.
Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.
Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.
Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism ,   to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.
After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.
Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.
Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.
In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.
With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.
Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.
Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith ,  others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.
Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.
The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.
Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.
The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.
Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti.
Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.
Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza ,  and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.
There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.
Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth ,  while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.
Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.
Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.
It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject  and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.
One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest , composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.
In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.
Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.
Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects  is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,  sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.
Sports originating in England include association football,  cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash ,  rounders ,  hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.
It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league,  most lucrative,  and amongst the elite.
As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.
One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.
However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final. William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games.
England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.
Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.
Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria.
Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F. Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf.
England has produced grand slam winners: The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.
The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.
Tennis was created in Birmingham, England in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.
Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles  and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.
English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.
Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.
England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.
Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships. Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.
The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the worlds most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.
The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.
The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.
A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.
The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.
It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.
Although he elaborated on this theme, he rarely departed from it. In one sermon, Eckhart gives the following summary of his message: When I preach, I usually speak of detachment and say that a man should be empty of self and all things; and secondly, that he should be reconstructed in the simple good that God is; and thirdly, that he should consider the great aristocracy which God has set up in the soul, such that by means of it man may wonderfully attain to God; and fourthly, of the purity of the divine nature.
As Eckhart said in his trial defence, his sermons were meant to inspire in listeners the desire above all to do some good.
In Eckhart's vision, God is primarily fecund. Out of overabundance of love the fertile God gives birth to the Son , the Word in all of us.
Clearly, [e] this is rooted in the Neoplatonic notion of "ebullience; boiling over" of the One that cannot hold back its abundance of Being. Eckhart had imagined the creation not as a "compulsory" overflowing a metaphor based on a common hydrodynamic picture , but as the free act of will of the triune nature of Deity refer Trinitarianism.
These notions had been present in Pseudo-Dionysius 's writings and John the Scot 's De divisione naturae , but Eckhart, with characteristic vigor and audacity, reshaped the germinal metaphors into profound images of polarity between the Unmanifest and Manifest Absolute.
Eckhart was one of the most influential 13th-century Christian Neoplatonists in his day, and remained widely read in the later Middle Ages.
In , however, a manuscript "in agro dominico" was discovered containing six hundred excerpts from Eckhart, clearly deriving from an original made in the Cologne Dominican convent after the promulgation of the bull condemning Eckhart's writings, as notations from the bull are inserted into the manuscript.
It is also clear that Nicholas of Cusa , Archbishop of Cologne in the s and s, engaged in extensive study of Eckhart. He assembled, and carefully annotated, a surviving collection of Eckhart's Latin works.
Eckhart is considered by some to have been the inspirational "layman" referred to in Johannes Tauler 's and Rulman Merswin 's later writings in Strasbourg where he is known to have spent time although it is doubtful that he authored the simplistic "Book of the Nine Rocks" published by Merswin and attributed to the layman knight from the north.
On the other hand, most scholars consider the "layman" to be a pure fiction invented by Merswin to hide his authorship because of the intimidating tactics of the Inquisition at the time.
It has been suspected that his practical communication of the mystical path is behind the influential 14th-century "anonymous" Theologia Germanica , which was disseminated after his disappearance.
According to the medieval introduction of the document, its author was an unnamed member of the Teutonic Order of Knights living in Frankfurt. The following quote from the Theologia Germanica depicts the conflict between worldly and ecclesiastical affairs: The two eyes of the soul of man cannot both perform their work at once: For if the left eye be fulfilling its office toward outward things, that is holding converse with time and the creatures; then must the right eye be hindered in its working; that is, in its contemplation.
Therefore, whosoever will have the one must let the other go; for 'no man can serve two masters. Eckhart was largely forgotten from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, barring occasional interest from thinkers such as Angelus Silesius — Interest in Eckhart's works was revived in the early nineteenth century, especially by German Romantics and Idealist philosophers.
A second important figure in the later nineteenth century for the recovery of Eckhart's works was Heinrich Seuse Denifle , who was the first to recover Eckhart's Latin works, from onwards.
Since the mid-nineteenth century scholars have questioned which of the many pieces attributed to Eckhart should be considered genuine, and whether greater weight should be given to works written in the vernacular, or Latin.
Although the vernacular works survive today in over manuscripts, the Latin writings are only found in a handful of manuscripts.
Denifle and others have proposed that the Latin treatises, which Eckhart prepared for publication very carefully, were essential to a full understanding of Eckhart.
The Defense recorded Eckhart's responses against two of the Inquisitional proceedings brought against him at Cologne, and details of the circumstances of Eckhart's trial.
The excerpts in the Defense from vernacular sermons and treatises described by Eckhart as his own, served to authenticate a number of the vernacular works.
Since the s debate has been going on in Germany whether Eckhart should be called a "mystic". Kurt Flasch , a member of the so-called Bochum-school of mediaeval philosophy,  strongly reacted against the influence of New Age mysticism and "all kinds of emotional subjective mysticism", arguing for the need to free Eckhart from "the Mystical Flood".
Flasch argues that the opposition between "mystic" and "scholastic" is not relevant because this mysticism in Eckhart's context is penetrated by the spirit of the University , in which it occurred.
According to Hackett, Eckhart is to be understood as an "original hermeneutical thinker in the Latin tradition". Josiah Royce , an objective idealist , saw Eckhart as a representative example of 13th and 14th century Catholic mystics "on the verge of pronounced heresy" but without original philosophical opinions.
Royce attributes Eckhart's reputation for originality to the fact that he translated scholastic philosophy from Latin into German, and that Eckhart wrote about his speculations in German instead of Latin.
The very heart of Eckhart's speculative mysticism, according to Royce, is that if, through what is called in Christian terminology the procession of the Son, the divine omniscience gets a complete expression in eternal terms, still there is even at the centre of this omniscience the necessary mystery of the divine essence itself, which neither generates nor is generated, and which is yet the source and fountain of all the divine.
The Trinity is, for Eckhart, the revealed God and the mysterious origin of the Trinity is the Godhead, the absolute God.
Matthew Fox born is an American theologian. Fox has written a number of articles on Eckhart, [ citation needed ] and a book titled "Breakthrough: Caputo in his influential 'The Tears and Prayers of Jacques Derrida' emphasises the importance of that tradition for this thought.
Meister Eckhart has become one of the timeless heroes of modern spirituality , which thrives on an all-inclusive syncretism. Renewed academic attention to Eckhart has attracted favorable attention to his work from contemporary non-Christian mystics.
Eckhart's most famous single quote, "The Eye with which I see God is the same Eye with which God sees me", is commonly cited by thinkers within neopaganism and ultimatist Buddhism as a point of contact between these traditions and Christian mysticism.
The first translation of Upanishads appeared in two parts in and If we turn from the forms, produced by external circumstances, and go to the root of things, we shall find that Sakyamuni and Meister Eckhart teach the same thing; only that the former dared to express his ideas plainly and positively, whereas Eckhart is obliged to clothe them in the garment of the Christian myth, and to adapt his expressions thereto.
Buddha, Eckhart, and I all teach essentially the same. A major force in the mutual influence of eastern and western ideas and religiosity was the Theosophical Society ,   which also incorporated Eckhart in its notion of Theosophy.
The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Hindu reform movements. The Theosophical Society also had a major influence on Buddhist modernism ,  and the spread of this modernised Buddhism in the west.
Olcott and Anagarika Dharmapala , Helena P. Blavatsky was instrumental in the Western transmission and revival of Theravada Buddhism.
Suzuki , who joined the Theosophical Society Adyar and was an active Theosophist,    discerned parallels between Eckhart's teachings and Zen Buddhism in his Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist ,  drawing similarities between Eckhart's "pure nothingness" ein bloss nicht and sunyata.
Suzuki that there exist certain similarities between Zen Buddhism and Meister Eckhart's teaching, also disputed Suzuki's contention that the ideas expounded in Eckhart's sermons closely approach Buddhist thought, "so closely indeed, that one could stamp them almost definitely as coming out of Buddhist speculations".
The notable humanistic psychoanalyst and philosopher Erich Fromm was another scholar who brought renewed attention in the west to Eckhart's writings, drawing upon many of the latter's themes in his large corpus of work.
Eckhart was a significant influence in developing United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld 's conception of spiritual growth through selfless service to humanity, as detailed in his book of contemplations called Vägmärken 'Markings'.
Jung cites Eckhart approvingly in his discussion of Christ as a symbol of the archetypal self. Jung sees Eckhart as a Christian Gnostic:. Meister Eckhart's theology knows a "Godhead" of which no qualities, except unity and being, can be predicated; it "is becoming," it is not yet Lord of itself, and it represents an absolute coincidence of opposites: Union of opposites is equivalent to unconsciousness, so far as human logic goes, for consciousness presupposes a differentiation into subject and object and a relation between them.
As the Godhead is essentially unconscious, so too is the man who lives in God. In his sermon on "The Poor in Spirit" Matt. He is so quit and empty of all knowing that no knowledge of God is alive in him; for while he stood in the eternal nature of god, there lived in him not another: And so we say this man is as empty of his own knowledge as he was when he was not anything; he lets God work with what he will, and he stands empty as when he came from God.
So help us God. The world embracing spirit of Meister Eckhart knew, without discursive knowledge, the primordial mystical experience of India as well as of the Gnostics, and was itself the finest flower on the tree of the "Free Spirit" that flourished at the beginning of the eleventh century.
Well might the writings of this Master be buried for six hundred years, for "his time was not yet come. In Jacob's Ladder , Louis, the main character's friend, attributes the following quote to Eckhart:.
You know what he [Eckhart] said? The only thing that burns in Hell is the part of you that won't let go of your life; your memories, your attachments.
They burn 'em all away. But they're not punishing you, he said. They're freeing your soul. But if you've made your peace then the devils are really angels, freeing you from the Earth.
Exit , by Dimitris Lyacos the same quote attributed to Eckhart, appears in a slightly different wording:. Everything will burn to the end, you suffer, but nobody is punishing you, they are just setting your soul free.
Don't be afraid because while you fear death they will rend your soul like demons. Only calm down and you will see the angels who are setting you free and then you will be free.
In the book The Gargoyle by Andrew Davidson , Eckhart is mentioned in a story Marianne Engel recounts to the unnamed protagonist about her days in the Engelthal Monastery:.
God cannot be referred to as "good", "better", or best because He is above all things. If a man says that God is wise, the man is lying because anything that is wise can become wiser.
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